Glossary of Car Accidents Law
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Calendar: List of cases
arranged for hearing in court.
Caption: The caption of a
pleading, or other papers connected with a case in court, is the heading or
introductory clause which shows the names of the parties, name of the court,
number of the case, etc.
Case: Any proceeding, action,
cause, lawsuit or controversy initiated through the court system by filing a
complaint, petition, indictment or information.
Caseload: The number of cases
a judge handles in a specific time period.
Cause of action: A legal
Certiorari: Procedure for
removing a case from a lower court or administrative agency to a higher court
Challenge for cause: A
request by a party that the court excuse a specific juror on the basis that the
juror is biased.
Citation: Summons to appear
in court. 2. Reference to authorities in support of a legal argument.
Civil law: All law that is
not criminal law. Usually pertains to the settlement of disputes between
individuals, organizations or groups and having to do with the establishment,
recovery or redress of private and civil rights.
Claim: The assertion of a
right to money or property.
Clerk of the court: An
officer of a court whose principal duty is to maintain court records and
preserve evidence presented during a trial.
Closing argument: The closing
statement, by counsel, to the trier of facts after all parties have concluded
their presentation of evidence.
Collision Insurance: This
covers loss to the insured person's own auto caused by its collision with
another vehicle or object.
Code: A collection,
compendium or revision of laws systematically arranged into chapters, table of
contents and index and promulgated by legislative authority.
Commit: To lawfully send a
person to prison, a reformatory or an asylum
Common law: Law which derives
its authority solely from usage and customs of immemorial antiquity or from the
judgments and decrees of courts. also called "case law."
Comparative negligence: Negligence
of a plaintiff in a civil suit which decreases his recovery by his percentage of
negligence compared to a defendant's negligence.
Competency: In the law of
evidence, the presence of those characteristics which render a witness legally
fit and qualified to give testimony.
Complaint: In a civil case,
it is the initial document entered by the plaintiff which states the claims
against the defendant.
Contempt of court: Any act
that is meant to embarrass, hinder or obstruct a court in the administration of
justice. Direct contempt is committed in the presence of the court; indirect
contempt is when a lawful order is not carried out or refused.
Continuance: Adjournment of
the proceedings in a case from one day to another.
Corroborating evidence: Evidence
supplementary to that already given and tending to strengthen or confirm it.
Costs: An allowance for
expenses in prosecuting or defending a suit. Ordinarily does not include
Counter claim: Claim
presented by a defendant in opposition to, or deduction from, the claim of the
Court: Place where justice is
Court administrator: Manager
of administrative, non judicial affairs of the court.
Court commissioner: A
judicial officer at both trial and appellate court levels who performs many of
the same duties as judges and justices.
Court of appeals:
Intermediate appellate court to which most appeals are taken from superior
Court superior: State trial court of general jurisdiction.
Court supreme: "Court of
last resort." Highest court in the state and final appellate court.
Courts of limited jurisdiction:
Includes district, municipal and police courts.
Covers damage to a vehicle caused by an event other than a collision or
overturn. Examples include fire, theft, vandalism, and falling objects.
Criminal law: Body of law
pertaining to crimes against the state or conduct detrimental to society as a
whole. Violation of criminal statues are punishable by law.
Cross examination: The
questioning of a witness by the party opposed to the one who produced the